In many modern industrial fields, die casting is a crucial technology in the product manufacturing process. The manufacturers present a workflow of die casting product development, which includes the design of casting, dies, casting process, selection of casting alloys, casting equipment and process parameters. This article will introduce the principle, mechanism, classification, application and characteristics that you should know in the die casting process.

The die casting process associates injecting molten metal with low melting points into its mold, allowing it to cool. It is suitable for making large series and mass production of components because you can use metal molds even after casting. It is possible to produce large and complex parts using two mechanisms which include hot and cold chamber casting.

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Die casting is one of the most economical and rapid construction processes that can produce thousands of castings rapidly, using one mold. It is responsible for the construction of metal parts useful for making consumers. To fully understand the casting manufacturing process, we will introduce you to the two main types of die casting with detailed manufacturing methods.

Types of Die Casting 

There are two different ways of manufacturing parts in the die casting process, hot chamber and cold chamber die casting. In both manufacturing processes, a releasing agent sprays the mold. However, you cannot pour the melt directly into the mold cavity. You can read further detail of both castings processes through the below paragraphs.

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Hot Chamber Die Casting

The melt passes through a pipe into the casting chamber, where a piston presses it at high speed into a closed die casting mold. The hot section dies casting is the perfect way of working with low melting point material and is constantly in contact with the liquid alloy such as zinc, tin, lead and magnesium. It does not fit for high melting alloys because it would damage the pump, and the pump would directly contact the metal. Moreover, it includes a fast cycle time and the ability to melt metal.

Cold Chamber Die Casting

The cold chamber die casting is suitable for working with high melting points such as aluminum and copper. In this process, you should fill and press alloy into a casting mold through channels when producing components. You can use the hydraulic system in the cold chamber process, similar to the hot chamber casting. Unlike hot chambers, this process includes a long cycle time.

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Steps of Die Casting Manufacturing Process

The high-pressure die casting manufacturing process consists of six steps: preparation, filling, injection, cooling, ejection, and shaking. If you want to produce parts through die casting, you should follow the below steps.

Preparation

The first step in the die casting manufacturing process is preparation. In this process, it is necessary to spray a lubricant into the chamber, and it will help control the temperature of the mold. Moreover, the oil will also help remove casting for better injection of the solidified product. After this process, clamp and close the die with high pressure.

Filling

The next step is to fill the molten metal into the mold with high pressure from 10 to 175MPa. After filling the molten metal, you can maintain the pressure until the casting solidifies.

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Injection

The next and the third step of the manufacturing process is injecting. First of all, melt the metal you want to inject or pour into the cavity. It depends on the method that you choose. The shot chamber is rigid for cold die-casting, while it is hot for the hot section die casting. After selecting the room, inject the metal into it under high pressure.

Cooling

After clamping the die mold, allow the metal to cool for solidification. The solidified metal will change into your desired shape.

Ejection

An ejection mechanism pushes the solid casting out of the die in this step. Ensure the proper solidification of the mold before ejecting the final product into the chamber.

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ShakeOut

Shake out is the final step of the product manufacturing process involving separating scraps, including gates, runners, spurs and flash found after finishing the product. The process is usually done when you extrude the casting through a special dressing die. You can recycle and reuse the removed metal parts during the process.

After completing this process, you can check the defects such as stagnation and cold heading.

Common Products Created by Die-Casting

Die casting is one of the most interesting techniques and an ideal method for producing metal parts.You can use custom die casting to produce different kinds of products. Following are the typical products made by die casting, including traffic lights, industrial equipment, outdoor lighting, medical devices and recreational vehicles.

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Traffic lights

Manufacturers create traffic lights from die casting metals such as aluminum alloys. Aluminum is fit for making traffic lights enclosures and the other required components. Aluminum is lightweight and affordable, having powerful thermal properties and a reliable conductor compared to plastic materials.

Industrial Equipment

Many manufacturing companies use die-casting to create industrial equipment. You will find it all over the manufacturing plants of industries, from wall mount bearing houses and air compressors to porter cable pump houses. Besides, you can include piston connecting roads and industrial pump houses in the parts made from die casting.

Outdoor Lightning

Like traffic lights, aluminum parts are also a great option for outdoor lighting. These die-casting parts work for light housings and various light fixtures such as LED lights that require heat dissipation.

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Medical Devices

Die casting is usually used for medical devices because these devices must consist of aluminum parts. Sometimes a whole part consists of die-casting material, but some instruments have parts that die casting crafts. Some examples of medical devices include gearboxes, surgical equipment, monitors, operating room robots, insulin pumps, oxygen pumps, and peristaltic pumps made from die casting.

Recreational Vehicles

Recreational vehicles would not look great without die-casting parts because the use of aluminum and zinc creates a glamorous look. Some die casting parts, including trim molding, cylinders, chassis and more.

Conclusion

Die casting is essential for metal cast fabrication processes and has gained popularity for its low-cost production and efficiency. Usually, it is helpful in the construction of large series and thin components production. The use of aluminum parts leads to a reduction in the weight of vehicles and fuel consumption. Automotive industries commonly use die casting components such as wheels, blocks, cylinders and manifolds. The process is simple but needs a little knowledge and experience in outsourcing the exemplary service.

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